Question - Write a note on advertisement evaluation techniques. Explain Pre-Testing, Concurrent Testing, and Post Testing.
In today's advertising world, every firm invests heavily on advertisement for making their products or services known to the target audience and to arouse the interest of target audience in firm's products or services. Advertising is done with some predefined objectives- to generate awareness about product, to arouse interest in product, to change the attitude of audience towards product, to stimulate desire for product, or to make them buy the product.
Advertising is of no use if the defined objectives of communication is not achieved. So, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of advertisement at different level, starting from creation of ad-copy to running of ad on media, and also after execution of ad to know to what extent the objectives are achieved.
Types of Test
Following are the types of test applied in advertisement evaluation:
- Concurrent Testing
- Post Testing
Pre-Testing follows the universal law "Prevention is better than cure". Advertising can be pretested at several points in the creative development process. Pre-Testing helps the advertiser to make a final go or no go decision about finished or nearly finished advertisement. Pre-Testing method refer to testing the potentiality of a communication message or ad-copy before printing, broadcasting, or telecasting. Following are the types of pre-testing methods:
A. Qualitative Methods of Pre-Testing
- Focus Group: Focus group involve exposing the ad to a group of 8 to 12 respondents. Focus groups are used with surprising frequency for making final go or no go decision. A moderator facilitates the discussion and walk s the group through a series of issues that are outlined in discussion guide.
- In-depth Interview: In-depth interview involve one on one discussion with respondents. Interviews are very effective when a researcher has a good idea of critical issues but does not have a sense of the kind of responses one will get. This method can be effectively used to generate new ad concepts and ideas.
- Projective Techniques: In this technique the respondent is instructed to project himself into the situation and verbalize the thoughts. projective technique can be very effective for evaluating ad concepts and for generating new ad concepts. But, it cannot be used for making final decisions.
B. Quantitative Methods of Pre-Testing
- Checklist Method: Checklist method is used to test the effectiveness of ad-copy. The purpose of this method is to ensure that all elements of the ad-copy are included with due importance in the advertisement. As it is a pre-test method any omitted element of ad can be included in the copy before release of the advertisement.
- Consumer Jury Method: This method involves the exposure of alternative advertisements to a sample of jury or prospects. This test is designed to learn from a typical group of prospective customers. Advertisements which are unpublished are presented before the consumer jury either in personal interviews or group interviews and their reactions are observed and responses are recorded.
- Sales Area Test: Under this method advertising campaign is run in the markets selected for testing purposes. The impact of the campaign is evaluated by actual sales in the selected markets. The market with high sales is considered the best market for effective sales campaign. In other markets suitable changes are made in the advertising campaign.
- Questionnaire Method: It is a list of questions related to an experiment. The draft of an advertisement along with some relevant questions is to be sent to a group of target consumers or advertising experts. Their opinions are collected and analyzed to find out whether the proposed advertisement is satisfactory or not.
- Recall Test: Under this method, advertising copies are shown to a group of prospects. After few minutes they are asked to recall and reproduce them. This method is used to find out how far the advertisements are impressive.
- Reaction Test: The potential effect of an advertisement is judged with the help of certain instruments, which measure heartbeats, blood pressure, pupil dilution etc. Their reactions reveal the psychological or nervous effects of advertising.
- Readability Test: All the listeners of advertisements cannot read it equally. So respondents are drawn from different socio economic and geographical backgrounds. This method is used to find out the level of effectiveness when and advertisement is read.
- Eye Movement Test: The movements of eyes of the respondents are recorded by using eye observation camera when advertisements are shown to them in a screen. This helps to find out the attention value of advertisement.
2. Concurrent Testing
Concurrent testing is evaluated throughout the whole advertisement execution process. Tests are conducted while audience is exposed to different type of media. Following are the types of concurrent testing methods:
- Consumer Diaries: Diaries are provided to a selected customers. They are also informed to record the details of advertisements they watch, listen or read. The diaries are collected periodically. The result obtained from such a survey reveals the effectiveness of advertisement.
- Co-incidental Surveys: This method is also called as co-incidental telephone method. Under this method, samples of customers are selected and calls are made at the time of broadcast of the advertisement programme. The data obtained and analyzed will give a picture about the effectiveness of an advertisement.
- Electronic Devices: Now day’s electronic devices are widely used to measure the effectiveness of an advertisement. They are mainly used in broadcast media. These are auto meters, track electronic units etc.
3. Post Testing
Post testing is done to know- to what extent the advertising objectives are achieved. Following are the types of post testing methods:
- Recognition Test: Recognition test involves the ability of viewers to correctly identify ad, brand, or message they previously exposed to. The types of recognition test are:
- Starch Test - The Starch test is applied only to print ads that have already run. The interviewer shows each respondent a magazine or newspaper containing the ads being tested. For each ad the interviewer asks the respondents to reply to ad related questions.
- Bruzzone Test - The Bruzzone test is conducted through mail surveys. Questionnaires containing frames and audio scripts from television commercials are sent to respondents and respondents are asked whether they recognize the ad and brand.
- Recall or Impact Test: The recall test is designed to measure the impression of readers or viewers of the advertisement. If a reader has a favorable impression of the advertisement, he will certainly retain something of the advertisement. The measures of interest would be obtained by interviewing the readers or viewers or listeners, days after the advertisement or commercial is appeared in the newspaper, or on T.V. Interviewer asks the readers or viewers to answer some ad related questions, and in response to the question asked, the reader reveals the accuracy and depth of his impression.