Question - What do you mean by marketing and marketing environment?
In today's world of marketing, everywhere you go you are being marketed to in one form or another. Marketing is with you each second of your walking life. From morning to night you are exposed to thousands of marketing messages everyday. Marketing is something that affects you even though you may not necessarily be conscious of it.
Definition of Marketing
According to American Marketing Association (2004) - "Marketing is an organizational function and set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing relationships in a way that benefits both the organization and the stakeholder."
According to Kotler (2000) - "A societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others."
The term Marketing Environment refers to the forces and factors that affects the organization ability to built and maintain good relationship with its customers. Marketing environment surrounds the organization and it impacts upon the organization. Marketers have to interact with internal and external people at micro and macro level and builds internal and external relationships. The key elements of marketing environment are as follows :-
- Internal Environment,
- Micro Environment, and
- Macro Environment.
Internal factors like men, machine, money, material, etc., on which marketing decision depends consists internal marketing environment. The internal environment refers to the forces that are within the organization and affects its ability to serve its customers. It includes marketing managers, sales representatives, marketing budget, marketing plans, procedures, inventory, logistics, and anything within organization which affects marketing decisions, and its relationship with its customers.
Individuals and organizations that are close to the marketing organization and directly impacts its ability to serve its customers, makes Marketing Micro Environment. The micro environment refers to the forces that are close to the marketing organization and directly impact the customer experience. It includes the organization itself, its suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, markets or segments, competitors, and publics. Happenings in micro environment is relatively controllable for the marketing organization.
Macro environment refers to all forces that are part of the larger society and affects the micro environment. It includes demography, economy, politics, culture, technology, and natural forces. Macro environment is less controllable.