The Marketing Mix
Summary (Click to go directly)
In recent times, giving more importance to customer a new concept have been introduced, i.e. Concept of 4C's. The Concept of 4C's is more customer-driven replacement of 4P's. According to Lauterborn's the 4C's are - Consumer, Cost, Communication, and Convenience. According to Shimizu's the 4C's are -Commodity, Cost, Communication, and Channel.
- Product - Products are offerings that a marketer offers to the target audience to satisfy their needs and wants. Product can be tangible good or intangible service. Tangible products are goods like - cellphone, television, or motor car, whereas intangible products are services like - financial service in a bank, health treatment by a doctor, legal advice of a lawyer.
- Price - Price is the amount that is charged by marketer of his offerings or the amount that is paid by consumer for the use or consumption of the product. Price is crucial in determining the organisation's profit and survival. Adjustments in price affects the demand and sales of the product. Marketers are required to be aware of the customer perceived value of the product to set the right price.
- Promotion - Promotion represents the different methods of communication that are used by marketer to inform target audience about the product. promotion includes - advertising, personal selling, public relation, and sales promotion.
- Place - Place or distribution refers to making the product available for customers at convenient and accessible places.
- Consumer - In this model the Product is replaced by Consumer. Marketers focuses more on consumer satisfaction. The product is designed and produced keeping in consideration the requirements of consumer.
- Cost - Price is replaced by Cost. Here the cost refers to the total cost of owning a product. It includes cost to use the product, cost to change the product, and cost of not choosing the competitor's product.
- Communication - Promotion is replaced by Communication. Communication includes advertising, public relation, personal selling, and any method that can be used for proper,timely, and accurate communication between marketer and consumer.
- Convenience - Place is replaced by Convenience. it focuses on ease of buying, convenience in reaching to the store/product, and convenience in getting product information.